Pharmacodynamic properties

Of the different phyto-cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, only a few are able to interact different measurements with endogenous CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. The CB1 receptor is present in the system
Central nervous and peripheral nerves (eg cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, substantia nigra, marrow, spinal interneurons), but also in the spleen, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, bladder and reproductive organs. CB2 receptors concentrate on the tissues and cells of the CB2 immune system, such as leukocytes and spleen, but also in nerve cell astrocytes. 

The Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a partial agonist of both CB receptors and is responsible for the effects
psychoactive effects of cannabis for its action on the CB1 receptor; THC also acts on other receptors
Non-CB and other targets such as ion channels and enzymes with potential pain killers, antinhessus,
Antiemetics, anticinetics, stimulating appetite and hypotensives on endococular pressure.

Cannabidiol (CBD) lacks psychoactivity as it does not appear to bind to either CB1 receptors or receptors CB2 at appreciable concentrations, but it influences the activity of other targets such as ion channels, receptors and
Enzymes with a potential anti-inflammatory effect, analgesic, anti-nausea, antiemetic, antipsychotic, anti-
Ischemic, anxiolytic and antiepileptic.

Pharmacokinetic properties

Regardless of medical or recreational use, the pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis vary function of the dose taken and the mode of recruitment.

It should be noted that in the case of medical use of cannabis, the route of administration and the doses to be used are at the discretion of the treating physician, taking into account the therapeutic needs of the patient, and therefore pharmacokinetic properties will be the function of the choices.

Following the oral intake of cannabis or synthetic THC (eg dronabinol), only 10-20% THC enters the circulatory system due to extensive liver metabolism and the limited solubility of THC in water. After oral administration, it takes 30 to 90 minutes for the beginning of the effect pharmacological; The maximum effect is obtained within 2-4 hours after the intake.

Plasma THC concentrations vary according to the dose taken. For example: after oral administration of 20 milligrams of THC is achieved with maximum plasma concentrations of 4 and 11 nanograms / ml between 1 and 6 hours after oral intake.

CBD shows a bio-availability and oral absorption similar to those of THC. After hiring Oral 10 milligrams of CBD peak concentrations are 2.5 + 2.2 nanograms per milliliter.

Following the inhaled intake of cannabis, the bio-availability of THC varies from 10 to one 35%; The pharmacological effect begins after a few minutes and has a maximum peak of approximately one hour after inhalation and a decline in 3-4 hours. 

The maximum plasma concentrations of THC are within ten minutes of the first suction. The number, duration and range of aspirations affect maximum plasma concentrations and time of peak. In the case of inhalation, as well as in oral intake, concentrations THC plasma vary according to the inhaled dose. For example, after taking it by the way inhaled with 16 or 34 milligrams of THC, the plasma concentrations reached within the first ten
Minutes range from 50 to 130 and 70 to 270 ng THC per ml of plasma administration to drop below 5 ng / ml after two hours after the last inhalation.

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